Virology and Immunology of Hepatitis Viruses

  • Authors: Esperance Anne Kreek Schaefer, MD, MPH; Raymond T. Chung, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/10/18 (What's New)


  • HCC can arise in the absence of cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis B
    • Age older than 39 years, higher HBV DNA level, infection with genotype C, and several viral mutations all increase the risk of HCC[McMahon 2009]
  • Proposed mechanisms for HCC oncogenesis include inactivation of cancer suppressor genes or activation of oncogenes[McMahon 2009] and viral X protein disruption of signaling pathways[Paterlini 1995; Martin-Vilchez 2011]

Action required