Virology and Immunology of Hepatitis Viruses

  • Authors: Esperance Anne Kreek Schaefer, MD, MPH; Raymond T. Chung, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/10/18 (What's New)


  • HDV appears to replicate in a noncytopathic manner, and HDV replication decreases HBV replication
    • Hepatic injury is a result of the immune response
  • Existing evidence points to a maladaptive interferon response that may contribute to inflammation and HBV suppression but impaired response to interferon-based therapies

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