Virology and Immunology of Hepatitis Viruses

  • Authors: Esperance Anne Kreek Schaefer, MD, MPH; Raymond T. Chung, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/10/18 (What's New)


  • HAV replicates in a noncytopathic manner, and viremia is declining when symptoms of hepatitis develop
    • This suggests that hepatocellular injury in HAV is immune mediated, with both innate and adaptive immune responses involved
  • Early replication of HAV after infection without significant inflammatory response suggests subversion of the initial innate immune response

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