Virology and Immunology of Hepatitis Viruses

  • Authors: Esperance Anne Kreek Schaefer, MD, MPH; Raymond T. Chung, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/10/18 (What's New)


  • The understanding of the virology and pathogenesis of the major hepatitis viruses has vastly expanded since identification in 1962
  • There are highly effective vaccines for 3 of the viruses (A, B, and E), and highly effective treatment is now available for chronic hepatitis C (Management Guidelines)[AASLD-IDSA HCV]
  • Although treatments or vaccines are available for all 5 of these viruses, they remain a significant global health problem with tremendous morbidity and societal costs

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