Hepatitis B Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Natural History

  • Author: Marc G. Ghany, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/2/18 (What's New)


  • Estimates of the global prevalence of HBsAg in injection-drug users range from 5% to 10%[Nelson 2011]
  • Risk of HBV infection increases with the number of years of drug use, with frequency of injection, and with sharing of drug-preparation equipment[Hagan 1999; Bialek 2005]
  • HBV vaccination of injection-drug users is recommended[Schillie 2018a]

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