Hepatitis B Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Natural History

  • Author: Marc G. Ghany, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/2/18 (What's New)


  • Nonspecific immune responses, including production of interferon, activation of natural killer cells and Kupffer cells, may help to control viral replication during early HBV infection[Wieland 2000; Tang 2003; Webster 2002]
  • Acute, self-limited HBV infection is characterized by a strong, polyclonal, multispecific cytotoxic and helper T-cell response[Ferrari 1990; Thimme 2003]
  • Clinical hepatitis is associated with an influx of inflammatory cells, including both HBV-specific and non–HBV-specific T-cells

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