Hepatitis B Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Natural History

  • Author: Marc G. Ghany, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/2/18 (What's New)


  • Inactive chronic hepatitis B is characterized by the presence of anti-HBe, normal ALT levels, and low or undetectable HBV DNA in serum (< 2000 IU/mL) (Table 7)
    • Liver biopsy usually shows minimal necroinflammation and varying degrees of fibrosis
    • The rate of HBsAg clearance is low, but higher in women, older patients, and those with cirrhosis

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