Hepatitis B Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Natural History

  • Author: Marc G. Ghany, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/2/18 (What's New)

Summary

Global Overview of Hepatitis B Virus Infection

  • More than one third of the world’s population has been exposed to HBV, and approximately 257 million persons are chronically infected[WHO HBV]
  • Persons with chronic infection are at risk for the development of complications such as cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma
  • In the US, 3218 cases of acute HBV infection were reported in 2016[CDC 2016a]; the true figure is estimated to be considerably higher
  • The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B in the US has remained stable for the last 2 decades
  • It is estimated that 40% to 70% of persons with chronic HBV infection in the US are foreign born[Kowdley 2012]

Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus: Current Status and Trends