Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Natural History

  • Author: Francesco Negro, MD (More Info)
  • Editors In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 10/30/20 (What's New)



  • HCV is a major bloodborne human pathogen affecting approximately 1% of the global population[WHO 2017]
  • The most common route of transmission in developed countries is injection drug use, and the opioid epidemic has contributed to a steady rise in new cases since 2010
  • If untreated, most acute infections progress to chronic infection and liver disease
  • Progression to advanced liver disease and HCC is influenced by several cofactors, the most important being alcohol abuse and metabolic syndrome[Alberti 2009]
  • Proportion of patients on the liver transplant waiting list or undergoing liver transplantation for chronic HCV infection has been decreasing, largely due to the availability of more effective drugs for HCV[Goldberg 2017; ...

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