Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Natural History

  • Author: Francesco Negro, MD (More Info)
  • Editors In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 10/30/20 (What's New)


    Overview of Global Epidemiology
    • Prevalence rates of HCV in very low endemicity countries vary greatly from those in highly endemic areas where rates of infection are as high as 7% (Figure 1)[CDC Travel]
    • Major factors that contribute to current and future HCV prevalence include new infections, population migration, and mortality and cure rates (Table 1)
    • Transmission routes vary geographically, with iatrogenic transmission remaining important in resource-constrained settings and parenteral transmission predominant in resource-rich settings
    Iatrogenic Transmission
      Injection Drug Use
        Sexual Transmission
          Mother-to-Child Transmission
            Hepatitis C Virus Transmission to Healthcare Workers
              Hepatitis C Virus Transmission Among Incarcerated Persons
                Hepatitis C Virus Transmission in Other Settings
                  Prevention of Transmission for Patients Found to Be Hepatitis C Virus Positive

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