Virology and Immunology of Hepatitis Viruses

  • Authors: Esperance Anne Kreek Schaefer, MD, MPH; Raymond T. Chung, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/10/18 (What's New)


  • HCV affects approximately 1% of the global population[WHO 2017]
  • The primary route of inoculation is parenteral, and sexual transmission is rare
  • After exposure in adulthood, HCV chronicity is common

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