Virology and Immunology of Hepatitis Viruses

  • Authors: Esperance Anne Kreek Schaefer, MD, MPH; Raymond T. Chung, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/10/18 (What's New)


  • NAs have high rates of viral inhibition but carry risk of developing resistance
    • Rates vary across drug therapies with lamivudine having the highest rate of resistance
    • Resistance to entecavir develops at a much lower rate (1.2% after 5 years monotherapy), but it is significantly higher if there is already lamivudine resistance (51.0% after sequential monotherapy)

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