Virology and Immunology of Hepatitis Viruses

  • Authors: Esperance Anne Kreek Schaefer, MD, MPH; Raymond T. Chung, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/10/18 (What's New)


  • HDV is the smallest of any known human virus and more closely resembles plant viroids than other human RNA viruses
    • HDV is only seen with HBV coinfection because it requires hepatitis B surface proteins for its life cycle
    • Of the estimated 257 million people with chronic HBV infection, approximately 5% are coinfected with HDV[WHO 2017]

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