Hepatitis B Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Natural History

  • Author: Marc G. Ghany, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/2/18 (What's New)


  • Immunization programs have reduced the rate of chronic HBV infection and liver cancer in endemic regions
  • In 1984, universal newborn immunization and mass population screening and immunization was introduced in the Alaska Native people,[McMahon 2011] who have the highest rates of acute and chronic HBV rates in the US[McMahon 1993]
  • Immunization has significantly reduced the prevalence of markers of HBV infection and chronic infection among children in the US[Wasley 2010]

Action required