Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Natural History

  • Author: Francesco Negro, MD (More Info)
  • Editors In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 10/30/20 (What's New)


  • Careful history taking may reveal underreported risk behavior, such as illicit drug injection; however, some cases of HCV infection are still apparently unexplained
  • Independent risk factors—apart from commonly reported factors such as IDU—appear to include incarceration, religious scarification, wound inflicted by bloody object, body piercing, and history of immunoglobulin injection[Murphy 2000]

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