Virology and Immunology of Hepatitis Viruses

  • Authors: Esperance Anne Kreek Schaefer, MD, MPH; Raymond T. Chung, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/10/18 (What's New)


  • HBV is the most common hepatitis virus and one of the most common infections worldwide
    • Chronic HBV infection is found in an estimated 257 million individuals[WHO 2017]
  • Major sources of transmission are perinatal, close contact with infected individuals during childhood, sexual contact, and injection drug use

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