Hepatitis B Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Natural History

  • Author: Marc G. Ghany, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/2/18 (What's New)


  • HBV acquisition occurs in 70% to 90% of infants born to HBeAg-positive mothers with high HBV DNA levels (> 7.3 log10 IU/mL) at delivery[Stevens 1975]
  • Transmission usually occurs at delivery when the infant is exposed to maternal blood; intrauterine transmission is uncommon[Zhu 2010]
  • Passive-active immunization at birth reduces the rate of perinatal transmission by 94%[Schillie 2018a]

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